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Improve Your Eye Health Naturally

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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 12 million people over 40 in the United States have vision impairment.1Fast Facts of Common Eye Disorders | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published December 14, 2022. Accessed August 1, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/fastfacts.htm Rising environmental pollution, poor eating habits, and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to increased eye disease worldwide.2Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760

Can eyesight be improved naturally? Absolutely. Whether you are experiencing macular degeneration, blurry vision, poor night vision, cataracts, dry eyes, or diabetic retinopathy, naturopathic doctors (NDs) have many natural tools to support eye health. NDs identify the root causes of eyesight problems and provide natural treatment options to reduce chronic inflammation, lower blood pressure, maintain a healthy weight, and more.

Herbs and Supplements to Improve Eye Health

The eyes are the windows to the soul. They are also the only part of our body exposed to the outside world unprotected by skin. Our eyes need vitamins, carotenoids, trace metals, and omega-3 fatty acids to properly function and protect themselves against light-induced and age-related degenerative disorders.3Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids show great promise in improving ocular health. Essential omega-3s are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3–rich diets have been shown to improve several chronic eye conditions, including dry eye disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).4Rand AL, Asbell PA. Nutritional supplements for dry eye syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011;22(4):279-282. doi.org/10.1097/icu.0b013e3283477d23

DHA, an omega-3 vital for healthy vision, supports retinal health and delays visual decline. DHA may also reduce the risk of AMD and effectively treat inflammatory conditions such as dry eye.5Maiuolo J, Bulotta RM, Oppedisano F, et al. Potential properties of natural nutraceuticals and antioxidants in age-related eye disorders. Life (Basel). 2022;13(1):77. doi.org/10.3390/life13010077,6Chang D, Rong S, Zhang Y, et al. Serum free fatty acids level in senile cataract. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(5):406-411. doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2013.875420,7Chen D, Chao DL, Rocha L, et al. The lipid elongation enzyme ELOVL2 is a molecular regulator of aging in the retina. Aging Cell. 2020;19(2):e13100. doi.org/10.1111/acel.13100,8Johansson I, Monsen VT, Pettersen K, et al. The marine n-3 PUFA DHA evokes cytoprotection against oxidative stress and protein misfolding by inducing autophagy and NFE2L2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Autophagy. 2015;11(9):1636-1651. doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2015.1061170

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Experience the benefits of personalized natural healthcare with a trusted, licensed naturopathic doctor in your area.
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Vitamin C

Protecting eyes from the sun’s harmful UV rays is crucial. Like sunscreen for the eyes, vitamin C absorbs UV light and prevents damage.9Maiuolo J, Bulotta RM, Oppedisano F, et al. Potential properties of natural nutraceuticals and antioxidants in age-related eye disorders. Life (Basel). 2022;13(1):77. doi.org/10.3390/life13010077 Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, removing free radicals and protecting the cornea, lens, and other parts of the eye from oxidative damage.10Brubaker RF, Bourne WM, Bachman LA, McLaren JW. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41(7):1681-1683. There is also extensive research on vitamin C for cataracts, linking vitamin C deficiency to cataract development.11Wei L, Liang G, Cai C, Lv J. Association of vitamin C with the risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis. Acta Ophthalmol. 2016;94(3):e170-176. doi.org/10.1111/aos.12688

Vitamin E

Vitamin C isn’t the only antioxidant that supports eye health. Scientists have extensively studied vitamin E’s ability to neutralize oxidative stress and reduce inflammation — imbalances that significantly contribute to AMD and cataracts.12Pereira A, Adekunle RD, Zaman M, Wan MJ. Association between vitamin deficiencies and ophthalmological conditions. Clin Ophthalmol. 2023;17:2045-2062. doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S401262 The landmark AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) investigated the role of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene (vitamin A), zinc, and copper in the progression of AMD. Researchers found that a formula containing 400 IU of vitamin E daily reduced AMD progression.13Pereira A, Adekunle RD, Zaman M, Wan MJ. Association between vitamin deficiencies and ophthalmological conditions. Clin Ophthalmol. 2023;17:2045-2062. doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S401262,14Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(10):1417-1436. doi.org/10.1001/archopht.119.10.1417

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 is another powerful antioxidant that helps turn food into energy. Did you know the retina is the most metabolically active tissue in the body? Retinas need a significant amount of energy to properly function.15Mollet J, Giurgea I, Schlemmer D, et al. Prenyldiphosphate synthase, subunit 1 (PDSS1) and OH-benzoate polyprenyltransferase (COQ2) mutations in ubiquinone deficiency and oxidative phosphorylation disorders. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(3):765-772. doi.org/10.1172/JCI29089,16Qu J, Kaufman Y, Washington I. Coenzyme Q10 in the human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50(4):1814-1818. doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2656 Research also shows that people with AMD tend to have much lower CoQ10 levels. CoQ10 supplementation may reduce the risk of developing the disease.17Bilbao-Malavé V, González–Zamora J, de la Puente M, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in age related macular degeneration, role in pathophysiology, and possible new therapeutic strategies. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021;10(8):1170. doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081170

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is well known for supporting eye health, with research demonstrating it can delay retinal degeneration and visual decline. There is also evidence of beneficial effects on retinitis pigmentosa (a group of eye problems that affect the retina).18Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760,19Berson EL, Rosner B, Sandberg MA, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(6):761-772. doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1993.01090060049022 Several studies have reported a link between vitamin A deficiency and night blindness.20Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760 Researchers note that vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia — the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide.21West KP. Vitamin A deficiency disorders in children and women. Food Nutr Bull. 2003;24(4 Suppl):S78-90. doi.org/10.1177/15648265030244S204

B Vitamins

What we call B vitamins are eight different vitamins essential for proper cell function and various metabolic reactions.22Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760 B6, B12, and folic acid support overall eye health and can aid in AMD prevention.23Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760 Deficiency may result in reduced vision, blurred vision, or blind spots from optic nerve damage.24Semba RD, ed. Nutritional Amblyopia and B Complex Vitamin Deficiencies. In: Handbook of Nutrition and Ophthalmology. Nutrition and Health. Humana Press; 2007:281-354. doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59259-979-0_7 Several studies have shown that high blood levels of B vitamins (such as riboflavin, thiamin, and niacin) may prevent cataracts.25Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760

Melatonin

Widely known for sleep support, melatonin also contributes to ocular health. Did you know we produce melatonin in various parts of our eyes, including the retina and iris?26Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760,27Carracedo G, Carpena C, Concepción P, et al. Presence of melatonin in human tears. J Optom. 2017;10(1):3-4. doi.org/10.1016/j.optom.2016.03.002 Melatonin’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (combined with its ability to act on the immune system) show great therapeutic potential for AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and uveitis (eye inflammation).28Diéguez HH, González Fleitas MF, Aranda ML, et al. Melatonin protects the retina from experimental nonexudative age-related macular degeneration in mice. J Pineal Res. 2020;68(4):e12643. doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12643,29Ferreira de Melo IM, Martins Ferreira CG, Lima da Silva Souza EH, et al. Melatonin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines, VEGF and apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy in rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2020;327:109183. doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2020.109183

Taurine

Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the retina.30Castelli V, Paladini A, d’Angelo M, et al. Taurine and oxidative stress in retinal health and disease. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2021;27(4):403-412. doi.org/10.1111/cns.13610 Research points to taurine’s ability to protect our eyes and essential role in supporting proper retinal function. Taurine can prevent retinal damage, slow the progression of retinal disease, and effectively treat existing retinal problems.31Froger N, Moutsimilli L, Cadetti L, et al. Taurine: the comeback of a neutraceutical in the prevention of retinal degenerations. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2014;41:44-63. doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2014.03.001

Polyphenols

As potent antioxidants, polyphenols fight cell damage and reduce inflammation. Scientists are studying polyphenols’ role in preventing and treating age-related eye diseases. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fats, nuts, seeds, and legumes contain dietary polyphenols.32Bungau S, Abdel-Daim MM, Tit DM, et al. Health Benefits of Polyphenols and Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;2019:9783429. Published 2019 Feb 12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9783429 

How the Mediterranean Diet Can Improve Vision

The Mediterranean diet (Med diet) is celebrated for its positive impact on chronic disease — including illnesses that affect eye health.33Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760  The Med diet recommends small amounts of red meat, focusing on fresh food:

  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Nuts
  • Legumes
  • Citrus fruits
  • Green vegetables
  • Olives and olive oil
  • Dairy products

Collectively, these foods have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, with demonstrated results for managing chronic eye diseases. More than 56% of nearly 8,000 participants with AMD experienced positive effects on the Med Diet in a recent study. The Med Diet reduced the risk of progression to late AMD, with fish consumption playing a central role.34Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760 ,35Keenan TD, Agrón E, Mares J, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Progression to Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies 1 and 2. Ophthalmology. 2020;127(11):1515-1528. doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.04.030 A similar study showed the Med Diet could reduce the risk of AMD by 41%.36Merle BMJ, Colijn JM, Cougnard-Grégoire A, et al. Mediterranean Diet and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The EYE-RISK Consortium. Ophthalmology. 2019;126(3):381-390. doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.08.006

Imbalances in gastrointestinal bacteria have recently been linked to a higher risk of ocular conditions, including dry eye, uveitis, macular degeneration, and glaucoma.37Napolitano P, Filippelli M, Davinelli S, Bartollino S, dell’Omo R, Costagliola C. Influence of gut microbiota on eye diseases: an overview. Ann Med. 2021;53(1):750-761. doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1925150 This suggests a connection called the “gut–eye axis.”38Rinninella E, Mele MC, Merendino N, et al. The Role of Diet, Micronutrients and the Gut Microbiota in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: New Perspectives from the Gut−Retina Axis. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1677. doi.org/10.3390/nu10111677 The Med Diet has been shown to increase gut microbiome diversity, creating a more welcoming environment for positive gut bacteria to thrive.39Garcia-Mantrana I, Selma-Royo M, Alcantara C, Collado MC. Shifts on Gut Microbiota Associated to Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Specific Dietary Intakes on General Adult Population. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:890. doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00890 Research indicates that people who follow the Med Diet have a healthier gut microbiota than those who eat a standard Western diet.40Mitsou EK, Kakali A, Antonopoulou S, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with the gut microbiota pattern and gastrointestinal characteristics in an adult population. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(12):1645-1655. doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517001593

Nutrients That Improve Vision Naturally

Supplements are concentrated nutrients that we usually get through food. If supplements are not an option due to cost or access, try eating more of these eye-protective foods:

  • Almonds, carrots, tuna (vitamin A)
  • Fish, milk, eggs, seeds, pistachios (melatonin)
  • Seafood, turkey, seaweed (taurine)
  • Fatty fish like mackerel, sardine, and salmon (omega-3)
  • Milk, cheese, eggs, fish, leafy vegetables, chicken (B vitamins)
  • Cabbage, broccoli, peas, spinach, lettuce, egg yolks (lutein and zeaxanthin)

Wear Protective Eyewear

Although herbs and supplements can support ocular health, don’t forget appropriate eyewear to protect your eyes from everyday damage.

According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, about 2,000 U.S. workers per day sustain job-related eye injuries that require medical treatment. Safety experts and eye doctors agree proper eye protection can decrease the severity of or prevent 90 percent of these injuries.41Fast Facts of Common Eye Disorders | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published December 14, 2022. Accessed August 1, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/fastfacts.htm

Work isn’t the only place where eye injuries happen. Research shows that protective eyewear should be worn during sports and recreational activities. Schools and sports facilities can encourage protective eyewear, particularly among teenagers and youth.42Lee DE, Ryoo HW, Moon S, Ahn JY, Kim JH, Kim JY. Epidemiology and risk factors for sports- and recreation-related eye injury: a multicenter prospective observational study. Int J Ophthalmol. 2021;14(1):133-140. doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.01.19

Did you know melanoma can affect your eyes in addition to damaging your skin? Researchers have advocated more public health campaigns to promote UV-protective eyewear, especially in strong sunlight when driving, boating, skiing, or swimming at the beach.43Dhomen N, Mundra PA, Marais R. Sunglasses to hide behind may also prevent melanoma of the eyes. Br J Cancer. 2021;125(4):470-472. doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01343-8

Get Regular, Comprehensive Eye Exams

When it comes to ocular health, the best defense is early detection. August is National Eye Exam Month, an important reminder to schedule regular, comprehensive eye exams. An update from the American Optometric Association recommends annual eye exams for earlier diagnosis of eye health problems and vision loss prevention.44New AOA adult eye guideline offers 14 actions, provides fresh insight on exam frequency. Accessed August 1, 2023. https://www.aoa.org/news/clinical-eye-care/diseases-and-conditions/new-aoa-adult-eye-guideline?sso=y Eye doctors inspect the optic nerve and blood vessels, assess eye strain, and identify risk factors for disease.

An estimated 93 million adults in the United States are at high risk for severe vision loss, but only half have visited an eye doctor in the past 12 months.45Fast Facts of Common Eye Disorders | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published December 14, 2022. Accessed August 1, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/fastfacts.htm Given that 90% of blindness caused by diabetes is preventable, what keeps more people from getting regular eye exams?

Those who did not seek eye care cited reasons including lack of awareness or cost, often worsened by insufficient health insurance.46Fast Facts of Common Eye Disorders | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published December 14, 2022. Accessed August 1, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/fastfacts.htm Expanding coverage for eye exams may benefit the health of equity-deserving groups.

Footnotes

  • 1
    Fast Facts of Common Eye Disorders | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published December 14, 2022. Accessed August 1, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/fastfacts.htm
  • 2
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 3
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 4
    Rand AL, Asbell PA. Nutritional supplements for dry eye syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011;22(4):279-282. doi.org/10.1097/icu.0b013e3283477d23
  • 5
    Maiuolo J, Bulotta RM, Oppedisano F, et al. Potential properties of natural nutraceuticals and antioxidants in age-related eye disorders. Life (Basel). 2022;13(1):77. doi.org/10.3390/life13010077
  • 6
    Chang D, Rong S, Zhang Y, et al. Serum free fatty acids level in senile cataract. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(5):406-411. doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2013.875420
  • 7
    Chen D, Chao DL, Rocha L, et al. The lipid elongation enzyme ELOVL2 is a molecular regulator of aging in the retina. Aging Cell. 2020;19(2):e13100. doi.org/10.1111/acel.13100
  • 8
    Johansson I, Monsen VT, Pettersen K, et al. The marine n-3 PUFA DHA evokes cytoprotection against oxidative stress and protein misfolding by inducing autophagy and NFE2L2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Autophagy. 2015;11(9):1636-1651. doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2015.1061170
  • 9
    Maiuolo J, Bulotta RM, Oppedisano F, et al. Potential properties of natural nutraceuticals and antioxidants in age-related eye disorders. Life (Basel). 2022;13(1):77. doi.org/10.3390/life13010077
  • 10
    Brubaker RF, Bourne WM, Bachman LA, McLaren JW. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41(7):1681-1683.
  • 11
    Wei L, Liang G, Cai C, Lv J. Association of vitamin C with the risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis. Acta Ophthalmol. 2016;94(3):e170-176. doi.org/10.1111/aos.12688
  • 12
    Pereira A, Adekunle RD, Zaman M, Wan MJ. Association between vitamin deficiencies and ophthalmological conditions. Clin Ophthalmol. 2023;17:2045-2062. doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S401262
  • 13
    Pereira A, Adekunle RD, Zaman M, Wan MJ. Association between vitamin deficiencies and ophthalmological conditions. Clin Ophthalmol. 2023;17:2045-2062. doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S401262
  • 14
    Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(10):1417-1436. doi.org/10.1001/archopht.119.10.1417
  • 15
    Mollet J, Giurgea I, Schlemmer D, et al. Prenyldiphosphate synthase, subunit 1 (PDSS1) and OH-benzoate polyprenyltransferase (COQ2) mutations in ubiquinone deficiency and oxidative phosphorylation disorders. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(3):765-772. doi.org/10.1172/JCI29089
  • 16
    Qu J, Kaufman Y, Washington I. Coenzyme Q10 in the human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50(4):1814-1818. doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2656
  • 17
    Bilbao-Malavé V, González–Zamora J, de la Puente M, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in age related macular degeneration, role in pathophysiology, and possible new therapeutic strategies. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021;10(8):1170. doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081170
  • 18
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 19
    Berson EL, Rosner B, Sandberg MA, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(6):761-772. doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1993.01090060049022
  • 20
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 21
    West KP. Vitamin A deficiency disorders in children and women. Food Nutr Bull. 2003;24(4 Suppl):S78-90. doi.org/10.1177/15648265030244S204
  • 22
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 23
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 24
    Semba RD, ed. Nutritional Amblyopia and B Complex Vitamin Deficiencies. In: Handbook of Nutrition and Ophthalmology. Nutrition and Health. Humana Press; 2007:281-354. doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59259-979-0_7
  • 25
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 26
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760
  • 27
    Carracedo G, Carpena C, Concepción P, et al. Presence of melatonin in human tears. J Optom. 2017;10(1):3-4. doi.org/10.1016/j.optom.2016.03.002
  • 28
    Diéguez HH, González Fleitas MF, Aranda ML, et al. Melatonin protects the retina from experimental nonexudative age-related macular degeneration in mice. J Pineal Res. 2020;68(4):e12643. doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12643
  • 29
    Ferreira de Melo IM, Martins Ferreira CG, Lima da Silva Souza EH, et al. Melatonin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines, VEGF and apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy in rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2020;327:109183. doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2020.109183
  • 30
    Castelli V, Paladini A, d’Angelo M, et al. Taurine and oxidative stress in retinal health and disease. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2021;27(4):403-412. doi.org/10.1111/cns.13610
  • 31
    Froger N, Moutsimilli L, Cadetti L, et al. Taurine: the comeback of a neutraceutical in the prevention of retinal degenerations. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2014;41:44-63. doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2014.03.001
  • 32
    Bungau S, Abdel-Daim MM, Tit DM, et al. Health Benefits of Polyphenols and Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;2019:9783429. Published 2019 Feb 12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9783429 
  • 33
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760 
  • 34
    Medori MC, Naureen Z, Dhuli K, Placidi G, Falsini B, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements in retinal diseases, glaucoma, and other ocular conditions. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E189-E199. doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2760 
  • 35
    Keenan TD, Agrón E, Mares J, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Progression to Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies 1 and 2. Ophthalmology. 2020;127(11):1515-1528. doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.04.030
  • 36
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